Linear Integrated Circuits

An operational amplifier is a high-gain direct-coupled amplifier that is normally used in feedback connections. If the amplifier characteristics are satisfactory, the transfer function of the amplifier with feedback can often be controlled primarily by the stable and well-known values of passive feedback elements.

The term operational amplifier evolved from original applications in analog computation where these circuits were used to perform various mathematical operations such as summation and integration. Because of the performance and economic advantages of available units, present applications extend far beyond the original ones, and modern operational amplifiers are used as general purpose analog data-processing elements.

High-quality operational amplifiers were available in the early 1950s. These amplifiers were generally committed to use with analog computers and were not used with the flexibility of modern units. The range of operational-amplifier usage began to expand toward the present spectrum of applications in the early 1960s as various manufacturers developed modular, solid-state circuits. These amplifiers were smaller, much more rugged, less expensive, and had less demanding power-supply requirements than their predecessors. A variety of these discrete-component circuits are currently available, and their performance characteristics are spectacular when compared with older units.

A quantum jump in usage occurred in the late 1960s, as monolithic integrated-circuit amplifiers with respectable performance characteristics evolved. While certain performance characteristics of these units still do not compare with those of the better discrete-component circuits, the integrated types have an undeniable cost advantage, with several designs available at prices of approximately $0.50. This availability frequently justifies the replacement of two- or three-transistor circuits with operational amplifiers on economic grounds alone, independent of associated performance advantages. As processing and designs improve, the integrated circuit will invade more areas once considered exclusively the domain of the discrete design, and it is probable that the days of the discrete-component circuit, except for specials with limited production requirements, are numbered.

There are several reasons for pursuing a detailed study of operational amplifiers. We must discuss both the theoretical and the practical aspects of these versatile devices rather than simply listing a representative sample of their applications. Since virtually all operational-amplifier connections involve some form of feedback, a thorough understanding of this process is central to the intelligent application of the devices. While partially understood rules of thumb may suffice for routine requirements, this design method fails as performance objectives approach the maximum possible use from the amplifier in question.

Similarly, an appreciation of the internal structure and function of operational amplifiers is imperative for the serious user, since such information is necessary to determine various limitations and to indicate how a unit may be modified (via, for example, appropriate connections to its compensation terminals) or connected for optimum performance in a given application. The modern analog circuit designer thus needs to understand the internal function of an operational amplifier (even though he may never design one) for much the same reason that his counterpart of 10 years ago required a knowledge of semiconductor physics. Furthermore, this is an area where good design practice has evolved to a remarkable degree, and many of the circuit techniques that are described in this course can be applied to other types of electronic circuit and system design.

Lesson Plan

Date Period Topics Covered
UNIT – I              IC FABRICATION
23.06.2015 4 IC classification: Digital ICs, Linear ICs
23.06.2015 4 Fundamentals of monolithic IC technology: Layers in an IC
25.06.2015 5 Basic Planner Process: Silicon Wafer Preparation, Epitaxial Growth, Oxidation, Photolithography
26.06.2016 6 Basic Planner Process: Diffusion, Ion Implementation, Isolation Technique, Metallization, Assembly Processing And Packaging
30.06.2015 4 Fabrication of Active and Passive Components in ICs: Resistance – Diffused Resistor, Epitaxial Resistor, Pinched Resistor, Thin Film Resistor
02.07.2015 5 Capacitance – Junction Capacitor, MOS And Thin Film Capacitor
03.07.2015 6 Diodes – Schottky Barrier Diode
04.07.2015 1 JFET
07.07.2015 4 MOSFET – Use of Silicon Nitride, Polysilicon Gate
09.07.2015 5 Introduction to Linear IC: Operational Amplifier – Circuit Symbol, Op-amp Terminals, Power Supply Connections
10.07.2015 6 Ideal Op-Amp Characteristics: Open Loop Operation of Op-Amp, Feedback in Ideal Op-Amp
14.07.2015 4 DC Characteristics: Input Bias Current, Input Offset Current
16.07.2015 5 DC Characteristics: Input Offset Voltage, Thermal Drift
17.07.2015 6 AC Characteristics: Frequency Response, Frequency Compensation, Slew Rate
21.07.2015 4 Basic Applications of Op-Amp: Summer – Inverting Summer, Non-inverting Summer, Subtractor, Adder–Subtractor
23.07.2015 5 Basic Applications of Op-Amp: Differentiator, Integrator
24.07.2015 6 Op-Amp Circuits using Diodes: Half Wave Rectifier, Full Wave Rectifier
28.07.2015 4 Instrumentation amplifier
30.07.2015 5 V/I Converters: Floating Load, Grounded Load; I/V Converters
08.08.2015 1 Waveform Generators: Clippers – Positive Clipper, Negative Clipper
11.08.2015 4 Clampers – Positive Clamper, Negative Clamper; Peak Detector
13.08.2015 5 First Order Active Filters: Low Pass Filter, High Pass Filter
14.08.2015 6 Second Order Active Filters: Low Pass Filter, High Pass Filter
18.08.2015 4 Comparators: Zero Crossing Detector, Window Detector, Time Marker Generator, Phase Meter
20.08.2015 5 Multivibrators: Astable Multivibrator, Monostable Multivibrator
21.08.2015 6 S/H Circuit; Schmitt Trigger
25.08.2015 4 D/A Converter: Weighted Resistor Type – Transfer Characteristics, Output Voltage Equation; R-2R Ladder Type – Equivalent Circuit, Output Voltage; Inverted R-2R Ladder Type
27.08.2015 5 A/D Converter: Successive Approximation Type, Conversion Sequence
28.08.2015 6 Flash Type; Dual Slope Type – Functional Diagram, Output Voltage Equation
UNIT – IV           SPECIAL ICs
29.08.2015 1 555 Timer circuit: Functional block , Characteristics
01.09.2015 4 Applications – Astable Multivibrator
03.09.2015 5 Monostable Multivibrator, Schmitt Trigger
04.09.2015 6 566 – Voltage Controlled Oscillator: Pin Configuration, Block Diagram, Output Frequency Equation
08.09.2015 4 565 – Phase Locked Loop: Block Diagram, Circuit Functioning
10.09.2015 5 Derivation of Lock-in and Capture Range
11.09.2015 6 Applications – Frequency Multiplication / Division, Frequency Translation
12.09.2015 1 AM Detection, FM Demodulation
15.09.2015 4 Frequency Shift Keying Demodulator
UNIT – V             APPLICATION ICs
29.09.2015 4 IC Voltage Regulators – Fixed Voltage Series Regulator: Characteristics and Limitations, Line  and Load Regulation, Ripple Rejection, Output Current Boosting
01.10.2015 5 LM317 Regulator: Fixed Regulator used as Adjustable Regulator, Dual Voltage Supply
06.10.2015 4 723 Regulator: Functional Block Diagram, Low Voltage Regulator
08.10.2015 5 Current Limit Protection, Current Foldback, Current Boosting
09.10.2015 6 Switching Regulator: Block Diagram
10.10.2015 1 Function Generator IC: XR – 2206 – Block Diagram, Transfer Characteristics, Pin Configuration
13.10.2015 4 Filter IC: Characteristics, Connection Diagram
15.10.2015 5 Filter Configurations, Design Procedure
16.10.2015 6 Basic Idea of Signal Conditioner for Voltage and Current Measurement using Op-Amp
17.10.2015 1 Seminar: Switched Capacitor Filter
20.10.2015 4 Seminar: Analog Multiplier

Lecture Notes

IC Fabrication Characteristics and Basic Applications of Op-Amp Waveform Generators and Comparators Specific ICs Application ICs

PowerPoint Presentation

IC Fabrication

Specific ICs

Application ICs


Date Issued Submission Date Assignment Topics Question Paper Solution Manual
10.07.2015 20.07.2015 IC Fabrication, Characteristics and Applications of Op-Amp Download

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